The Hezbollah and Hamas Islamic movement and Balad
(National Democratic Alliance) : The Politics of Mutual Relations



by Rafa Abu Tarif





            This research deals with The Islamic movement and Balad (National Democratic Alliance), who are citizens of the State of Israel, and their potential for terror, that hovers over them due to their mutual relations with Islamic terrorist organizations: Hamas & Hezbollah. The critical question that arises is - can there be cooperation and development of a relationship in an ideological-religious background?

            The research shows that although at the declaratory level the sides present a united front of ideological and religious goals against Israel, in fact, the possibility of a close relationship between them is low, since they are managed by world values that are made up of different ideological and political components, and separate community circles.

In this research, two independent variables were defined, that are depicted by means of two dimensions: ideological and political. In order to define the dependent variables examined, namely the level of approach between the organizations, the relations of interaction between cooperation and disregard were defined. The connection between each one of the dimensions to the levels of cooperation answers the question of the feasibility of realization – from the potential of basic approach and up to the highest level of cooperation between the organizations in study.

As regards to the question of the potential of approach, it is possible to say that the interaction and the cooperation between Hamas, Hezbollah and the Islamic movement and Balad (National Democratic Alliance) is conducted according to relative intensity and on different levels. In most cases, it is ideological and operational, in the supply of equipment and arms (between Hamas and Hezbollah) and in the training carried out by the Hamas, in the instruction of agents from among the Israeli Arabs and in their recruitment for intelligence purposes in the service of Hezbollah. However, the interaction between them does not actually develop into a coalition. Hamas is not the only factor of interest to Hezbollah in the arena. It enlists The Islamic movement and Balad (National Democratic Alliance) collaborators. The source of the focus on motivation of the two terrorist organizations, lies in instigating terrorist acts against Israel, as carried out by those they activate, who are residents of the areas working for the Hezbollah. The organization places prime importance on Israel and in getting to know the enemy. Thus, Hezbollah makes a great effort to recruit collaborators from among The Islamic movement and Balad (National Democratic Alliance) , who can assist them in accomplishing this goal, by means of the collection of information on various subjects: the security set-up of the State of Israel, national infrastructures (electricity, energy, chemicals), location, movements of IDF forces on the Northern border and more.  In contrast, Hamas recruits cell groups from among the Israeli Arabs for intelligence purposes in preparation for attacks, for transporting illegal aliens and for planning attacks on Israeli territory.

The interaction that leads to getting closer highlights the mutual interests of war against the common enemy. Through Hezbollah, Hamas sees itself, Syria and Iran as adding strategic depth, essential to the organization. On the other hand,  the Shiites, Iran and Hezbollah, view the connection with Hamas and the activating of Palestinian terror as a tool to strengthen their position in the area, whereby Hezbollah opens a long pipeline of terror into Israel. The Hezbollah activates terror against Israel through the Israeli Arabs and places first importance on the study of Israel and getting to know the opponent in depth, through the recruitment of cell groups from among the Israeli Arabs and by taking advantage of their "skills" as Israeli citizens with the right of free movement for gathering intelligence and preparing the infrastructure of the penetrating cells of the Hezbollah.

This research defined the sources of cooperation through interaction between The Islamic movement and Balad (National Democratic Alliance) - Hamas and Hezbollah: in the ideological dimension - affiliation with sources of different religious authority (Marg'ia), Sunni-Shiite religious tension and religious wars, taking place between them across the Muslim world, affiliation with various international circuits, the Palestinian (Israeli Arabs affiliate themselves with the Palestinian people and the Muslim world) and Lebanese, and separate organizational objectives; in the community dimension - the management of  separate, different 'Dawa' arrays based on two different orientations and even contradictory. As previously mentioned, the community dimension places great weight on the existence of terrorist and religious organizations and on the activities of the Jihad, which is one of the principal outputs of the "Dawa" circle. From here, the lack of direct ties between the different communities constitutes an important measure for checking the relations of the organization with a comrade organization. As for the political dimension, the Hamas and the Hezbollah belong to political-nationalist circles and different areas. Nonetheless, since 2003 the affinity of Hamas with Hezbollah has increased due to a common regional patron – Iran, although each organization belongs to another Islamic camp. The Sunni belong to the Hamas and the Shiites belong to the Hezbollah and a great deal of tension prevails between them. regarding the interaction of a similar ideological background between Israeli Arabs, ("Tana"as") and Hamas, both belong, from the ideological point of view, to the Islamic religious stream which has a clear linkage to the Movement of Muslim Brotherhood. The heads of the Islamic movements define themselves as "identifying with the movement of Muslim Brotherhood, but are not members of it". The Hamas views the "Tana"as" as part of it in Palestine. On the basis of this view, the Israeli Arabs constitute a sub-unit of the division of Palestine. According to this study, the level of cooperation between the organizations shows a relationship in various areas: economic aid, mutual meetings, and explanatory aid.


The principal conclusions of this study are as follows:

Firstly, the interaction between the terrorist organizations and Israeli Arabs, working against Israel, does not bring them to a broad, encompassing cooperation. Although it is possible to see that they are united in their aims in all that concerns the fight in Israel on the declaratory level, the research confirmed my central thesis, that the ability of the Islamic terrorist organizations operating against Israel to build a close relationship is limited. The reasons for this stem from the fact that at the political and community level, they conduct themselves in separate circles that limit their ability to draw closer.

Secondly, the trans-national, anti-Israeli, terrorist network is complex and dynamic, the relationships within it are temporary and complex, and it is fed by three different orientations, causing inherent tensions: Khumeiniism, the Muslim Brotherhood and the radical revisionists. These tensions stem from pan-Arabic and pan-Islamic differences of religion (Hamas, Hezbollah) and nationalism. The ideological common ground encourages integration and war in Israel, but also antagonism stems from religious tension between the different sources of Islamic authority (marg'ia).

Thirdly, it is also possible to note that on the one hand, the interdependence of terrorist organizations and the activators among the Israeli Arabs investigated, during their action against Israel, is positive, but on the other hand, their activity to attain inter-Islamic property constitutes a negative interdependence. Therefore, the internal Islamic rift  proves to be stronger than the tendency to cooperate to the full (strategic and organizational) against Israel.




The Hezbollah and Hamas Islamic movement and Balad (National Democratic Alliance) : The Politics of Mutual Relations



BY: Rafa Abu Tarif

Supervised by: Prof. Gabi Ben-Dor

                      Dr. David Bukai

                          Dr. Joshua Frenkel






University of Haifa

Faculty of humanity

Department of land of Israel Studies


The Hezbollah and Hamas Islamic movement and Balad (National Democratic Alliance) : The Politics of Mutual Relations




Rafa Abu Tarif




University of Haifa

Faculty of humanities

Department of land of Israel Studies

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